Hoist, Cranes, and Lifting Devices

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There are many safety considerations for hoists, cranes , and lifting devices . The equipment must be capable of lifting the load. Because operators may not always have a full view of the work process, it is important to have proper communication during operation. There are numerous situations where workers could be put at risk when a load is in motion. These regulations prescribe requirements for procedures of common situations and devices to protect workers from unsafe conditions.

This guide covers equipment and operational requirements for hoists, cranes, and lifting devices. It does not cover rigging.

Who can operate?

  • A qualified operator is required when the crane is:
    • a tower crane,
    • an overhead traveling crane with a load rating equal to or greater than 50 tonnes,
    • a crane that is used to raise or lower a worker on a personnel-lifting unit suspended from a hoist line, or
    • a mobile crane that has a load rating greater than five tonnes.

In all other circumstances:

  • For a crane with a load rating greater than or equal to five tonnes the operator must be a competent operator
  • For any mobile crane or overhead traveling crane with a load rating less than five tonnes the operator is a competent worker.

The exception to the rule. The operator does not need to be a qualified operator if:

  • The crane is mounted on a vehicle and used exclusively to load and unload the vehicle. (e.g. Roofing supplies delivery truck)
  • The crane is owned by the employer, operated by their worker and used at the employer's site. (e.g. A mining company; they own the crane, a mine company employee operates the crane and they are working on the mine site).

General conditions:

An employer or contractor shall ensure:
  • No person under the age of 16 operates a crane, a hoist or a lifting device.
  • A crane, a hoist or a lifting device is operated to perform tasks safely.
  • A crane, a hoist or a lifting device is constructed, inspected, tested and maintained according to an approved standard (e.g. CAN/CSA Z150 - Safety Code On Mobile Cranes).
  • A load rating / chart is accessible to the operator at the control station.
  • Not require or allow the operator to raise any load greater than the manufacturer’s rated load or one determined by a professional engineer for the operating conditions.
  • A copy of the manufacturer’s operating manual is readily accessible to the operator.
  • Ensure tower crane operator cabs attached to a boom or jib meets the crane manufacturer’s or professional engineer’s specifications.
  • A mobile crane with a load rating (maximum capacity) of nine tonnes or greater is equipped with a permanent load gauge. All tower cranes are equipped with a permanent load gauge. The load gauge is only required to indicate the weight of the object being lifted.
  • A crane with a boom is equipped with:
    • Boom angle indicator (can be within the crane Load moment indicator)
    • For Lattice boom cranes – Positive boom stops, Boom stop limit device, jib stop device.
  • A mobile crane with a load rating (maximum capacity) of nine tonnes or greater is equipped with an anti-two-block device.
  • A tower crane is equipped with overload switches that
    • Stop the hoist drum if the object exceeds maximum capacity
    • Restricts the maximum radius a load can travel.
  • Provide a log book for each hoist and cranes with a rated loads greater than five tonnes and ensure:
    • that the book is kept readily available;
    • a copy of the book is provided to the operator on request;
    • the hours of service of the hoist or crane and all other details of inspection, maintenance or calibration are recorded in the log book and appropriately signed by the person performs inspection, maintenance or calibration; and
    • the log book is reviewed and signed on a regular basis.
  • Outrigger stabilizers are used according to the manufacturer’s instructions, on solid footing, with suitable controls.
  • A minimum clearance of 600 mm should be maintained between the crane and obstacles. If distance is less than 600 mm, the area around the crane is barricaded to restrict access (Use danger or caution tape around crane).
  • Develop written procedures for erecting and dismantling a hoist or crane, including blocking masts, booms, or jibs, and ensure that these procedures are followed.
  • A crane or hoist or lifting device is inspected:
    • By a competent person
      • prior to start of each work shift
      • At regular intervals as recommended by the manufacturer.
    • By a Professional engineer:
      • Every two years or 1,800 hours of operation for a mobile crane.
      • Before each erection at each site and every year or 2,000 operating hours.
  • The operator is trained in the operation of the device.

A supplier (Manufacturer e.g. Grove, Tadano) shall ensure a crane, a hoist or a lifting device:

  • Is constructed, inspected, tested and maintained according to an approved standard (eg. CAN/CSA - B335- Safety Standards for Lift Trucks).
  • Ensure the load rating indicator (Load Chart) contains:
    • all load ratings;
    • warnings that no allowance is made in the load ratings for factors including: the effects of swinging loads, tackle weight, wind, the degree of machine level, ground conditions, inflation of tires and operating speeds;
    • any restrictions to operating in low temperatures.
  • Ensure tower crane operator cabs attached to a boom or jib meets the crane manufacturer’s or professional engineer’s specifications.
An operator shall:
  • Not operate a device unless you are a designated operator and trained in the operation of the device.
  • Not operate a crane unless you have written proof of training in the operation of that device and has it readily accessible at all times when you are operating the crane.
  • Not operate a crane unless a copy of the results of testing or inspection is readily available or is on site.
  • Not raise a load unless they have determined the accurate weight of the load and that it is less than the rated load for the operating conditions.
  • Ensure that an unattended or parked crane or hoist is stored safely and securely, locked or inoperative, and a mobile crane is level with chocked wheels.

Hoisting Personnel

Employer or contractor shall:
  • Work practices and procedures that provide for the safe raising and lowering of workers
    • are developed and implemented
    • train the workers on those practices and procedures
  • ensure that the equipment and personnel lifting unit is inspected by a competent person before use and daily when in use, and that the competent person records the details of the inspection in the log book.
  • Not require or allow the operator to raise or lower workers unless the load is less than one-half of the rated load determined by the manufacturer or a professional engineer accounting for the operating conditions.
Employer or contractor or worker shall:
  • Not require or allow the operator to raise or lower workers unless:
    • the personnel lifting unit (man basket) meets the requirements of subsection 192(1);
    • the suspension members of the personnel lifting unit are securely attached to the crane’s hoist line by a shackle, weldless link, ring or other secure rigging attachment;
    • there is a secondary safety device that attaches the shackle or weldless link (above bullet) to the crane or hoist rigging above the point mentioned in the previous bullet (eg. first attachment the hook, secondary attachment a shackle around the hoist line above the ball);
    • the load line hoist drum has a power lowering system or device (cannot only lower by free fall and brake);
    • workers in the personnel lifting unit use a full-body harness attached to the personnel lifting unit.

Designated signaller:

Employer or contractor shall:

  • Designate a signaller if the operator of the crane does not have a clear, unobstructed view of the location where:
    • The empty hook is being maneuvered to
    • The object is being lifted from
    • The object is being placed at
    • The object or empty hook at any time during it’s path of travel from pick up to setting point.

Friction hoists:

The Employer or contractor shall:

  • Ensure friction type hoists have an emergency stop and a safety device to prevent free fall of the load.

Material hoists:

The Employer or contractor shall:

  • Forbid workers from riding material hoists and ensure loads stay within the carrying unit.
  • Ensure that a materials hoist operator and designated signaller can communicate at all times.
  • Ensure a power-driven hoist has a safety device to stop and hold the load in case of hoist rope or braking failure.

An operator shall:

  • Not leave the controls when the material hoist is raised and only operates when safe to do so.

Tower hoists:

The Employer or contractor shall:

  • Ensure that a tower hoist has a securely anchored pulley block, enclosed ropes to the engine, and landing gates.
  • If not erected in a structure, the tower hoist must be enclosed on all sides except the landing side, or if in a structure, it must be enclosed on all sides except the landing side on the ground level and each floor, adequately supported, and have warning signs.

Roofers hoist:

The Employer or contractor shall:

  • Ensure a roofer’s hoist has a securely attached, appropriate counterweight and suitable locking device.
  • Ensure a roofer’s hoist is used for vertical lifts only and that it is not a wooden gallows frame.

Vehicle Hoists:

The Employer or contractor shall:

  • Ensure vehicle hoists are assembled, installed, operated, and maintained according to manufacturer’s instructions and have clearly marked controls that only function under worker operation.
  • Ensure that no worker locks the controls and that the vehicle hoist is appropriate to the weight and stands and blocks/wheel chocks are used.

Hand operated hoist:

The Employer or contractor shall ensure:

  • A hand-operated hoist meets an approved standard (ASME B30.21-2014) has a mechanism to stop and hold the load.
  • Workers do not work under a load supported by the hand-operated hoist. To work under a load it must be supported by adequate stands or blocks.

Winches:

The Employer or contractor shall:

  • Inspect all manually-operated hoisting or winching equipment regularly for safe operation.

Worker shall:

  • Before operating a winch on a vehicle, ensure that the breaks are applied or other effective means are taken to prevent movement of the vehicle.
  • Not move the vehicle until the winch operator signals that the vehicle can move safely.

A-Frames or Gin Poles:

The Employer or contractor shall ensure:

  • An A-Frame or gin pole is restrained from moving uncontrollably.
  • An A-Frame or gin pole not inclined more than 45° from vertical.
  • The sheave and cable keeper are attached securely for its load.

Pile Driving Equipment:

The Employer or contractor shall ensure:

  • That pile-driving equipment meets and is used according to manufacturer’s instructions and that repairs and modifications are certified by a professional engineer.
  • Pile-driving equipment brakes are cleaned or replaced when contaminated with oil or grease.
  • Workers are protected in case of a pile failure while driving the pile.
  • That the pile hammer is securely chocked when the hammer is suspended and the equipment is not in use
  • That no pile is hoisted into the leads while external workers are on the superstructure of the equipment or within range of a falling pile.
  • Crane booms with vibratory hammers or vibratory pile extractors are inspected monthly by a competent person.
  • No workers ride a load being moved, go beneath a suspended load, or be on the equipment if they are not involved with the hoisting of piles.

An operator shall ensure:

  • That the pile hammer of pile-driving equipment is securely chocked while the hammer is suspended and the equipment not in use.
  • That no pile is hoisted into the leads while external workers are on the superstructure of the equipment or within range of a falling pile.

Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996
S.S., c. O-1.1, Reg 1

Part I Preliminary Matters

Section 2 Interpretation

2. (1) In these regulations and in all other regulations made pursuant to the Act:

(a) "Act" means The Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 ;

(b) "air-purifying respirator" means a respirator that removes airborne contaminants from the air inhaled by a worker;

(c) "approved" means:

(i) approved by an agency acceptable to the director for use under the conditions prescribed by the agency; or

(ii) approved conditionally or otherwise by a certificate of the director;

(d) "atmosphere-supplying respirator" means a respirator that delivers clean breathing air to a worker from a compressor or a cylinder, an SCBA, whether closed or open circuit, or a combination of SCBA and supplied air;

(e) "borehole" means a mechanically drilled hole in the ground;

(f) "building shaft" means a continuous vertical space substantially enclosed on all sides that extends for two or more floors, and includes an elevator shaft, a ventilation shaft, a stairwell and a service shaft;

(g) "class A qualification" means a certificate or certificates that:

(i) are issued by an agency, as defined in section 50, with respect to the successful completion of a first aid training course and a cardiopulmonary resuscitation training course that meet the minimum requirements for course duration and content set out in Table 1 of the Appendix; and

(ii) qualify the holder to perform the services set out in Table 2 of the Appendix;

(h) "class B qualification" means a certificate or certificates that:

(i) are issued by an agency, as defined in section 50, with respect to the successful completion of a first aid training course and a cardiopulmonary resuscitation training course that meet the minimum requirements for course duration and content set out in Table 3 of the Appendix; and

(ii) qualify the holder to perform the services set out in Table 4 of the Appendix;

(i) "Class C fire" means a fire involving energized electrical equipment;

(j) "co-chairpersons" means, with respect to a committee, the employer or contractor co-chairperson appointed pursuant to clause 43(1)(b) and the worker co-chairperson elected pursuant to clause 43(1)(a);

(k) "committee" means an occupational health committee;

(l) "competent" means possessing knowledge, experience and training to perform a specific duty;

(m) "competent worker", with respect to a particular task or duty, includes a worker who is being trained to perform that task or carry out that duty and who is under close and competent supervision during that training;

(n) "connecting linkage" means a lanyard, safety hook, cable or connector inserted between a personal fall arrest system and the D-ring on a worker's full-body harness;

(o) "construction" means the erection, alteration, renovation, repair, dismantling, demolition, structural maintenance and painting of a structure, and includes:

(i) land clearing, earth moving, grading, excavating, trenching, digging, boring, drilling, blasting and concreting; and

(ii) the installation of any plant;

(p) "controlled product" means a controlled product within the meaning of the Hazardous Products Act (Canada);

(q) "dBA" means the sound pressure level in decibels measured on the A scale of a sound level meter;

(r) "dBA Lex" means the level of a worker's total exposure to noise, in dBA, averaged over an entire workday and adjusted to an equivalent eight-hour exposure;

(s) "designated signaller" means a worker designated pursuant to clause 132(1)(a) to give signals;

(t) "emergency medical technician" means a person who is licensed as an emergency medical technician, emergency medical technician-advanced or emergency medical technician-paramedic pursuant to The Ambulance Act;

(u) "escape respirator" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator or an air-purifying respirator that is designed to be used by a worker for escape purposes only;

(v) "excavated shaft" means a dug-out passage into the ground, the longest dimension of which exceeds 1.5 metres and of which the acute angle between the axis of the longest dimension and the vertical is less than 45;

(w) "excavation" means any dug-out area of ground other than a trench, tunnel or excavated shaft;

(x) "fall-arresting device" Repealed. [Sask. Reg. 67/2007, s. 3]

(y) "first aid" means immediate assistance given in case of injury until medical aid has been obtained;

(z) "first aid attendant" means the holder of a valid:

(i) class A qualification;

(ii) class B qualification;

(iii) emergency medical technician's licence; or

(iv) licence, certificate or other qualification that, in the opinion of the director, is equivalent to or superior to a qualification set out in subclauses (i) to (iii);

(aa) "first aid register" means the register required by section 57;

(bb) "first aid station" means a work-related area containing the supplies and equipment required by subsection 56(1);

(bb.1) "forklift" means a self-propelled machine that has a power-operated upright, angled or telescoping lifting device that can raise and lower a load for the purpose of transporting or stacking;

(cc) "full-body harness" means a safety device that is capable of suspending a worker without causing the worker to bend at the waist, and consists of straps that pass over the worker's shoulders and around the worker's legs, an upper dorsal suspension assembly and all integral hardware;

(dd) "hand tool" means hand-held equipment that is powered by the energy of a worker;

(ee) "harmful" means known to cause harm or injury;

(ff) "hazardous" means likely to cause harm or injury in certain circumstances;

(gg) "HEPA filter" means a high-efficiency particulate aerosol filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in collecting a 0.3 micrometre aerosol;

(hh) "hoist" means a machine that consists of a raising and lowering mechanism;

(ii) "immediately dangerous to life or health" means a condition in which a hazardous atmosphere exists to such an extent that a worker who is not using an approved respiratory protective device will suffer escape-impairing or irreversible health effects if the worker does not leave the hazardous atmosphere within 30 minutes;

(jj) "instruct" means to give information and direction to a worker with respect to particular subject-matter;

(kk) "lifeline" means a length of rope or strap that is attached to a safe point of anchorage at one end or, in the case of a horizontal lifeline, at both ends to provide support and a guide for a personal fall arrest system or personnel lowering device;

(ll) "locked out" means to have isolated the energy source or sources from equipment, to have dissipated any residual energy in a system and to have secured the isolation by a device that is operated by a key or other process;

(mm) "machine" means any combination of mechanical parts that transmits from one part to another or otherwise modifies force, motion or energy;

(nn) "maintained" means kept in a condition of efficient and safe functioning by a system of regular examination, testing and servicing or repair;

(oo) "The Mines Regulations" means The Mines Regulations, 2003 ;

(pp) "officer" means an occupational health officer;

(qq) "operator" means a person who operates any equipment;

(qq.1) "percutaneous" means a route of entry that is through the skin or mucous membrane, and includes subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravascular routes of entry.

(qq.2) "personal fall arrest system" means personal protective equipment that provides a means of safely arresting the fall of a worker and that, subsequent to the arrest of the fall, does not by itself permit the further release or lowering of the worker;

(rr) "personal protective equipment" means any clothing, device or other article that is intended to be worn or used by a worker to prevent injury or to facilitate rescue;

(ss) "personnel lowering device" means a device that provides a means of lowering a worker from a height at a controlled rate of descent;

(tt) "power tool" means a hand-held machine that is powered by energy other than the energy of a worker;

(uu) "powered mobile equipment" means a self-propelled machine or a combination of machines, including a prime mover, that is designed to manipulate or move materials or to provide a work platform for workers;

(vv) "professional engineer" means an engineer who is registered pursuant to The Engineering Profession Act;

(ww) "public highway" means a public highway as defined in The Highways and Transportation Act, 1997 ;

(xx) "qualified" means possessing a recognized degree, a recognized certificate or a recognized professional standing and demonstrating, by knowledge, training and experience, the ability to deal with problems related to the subject-matter, the work or the project;

(yy) "representative" means an occupational health and safety representative;

(zz) "respiratory protective device" means a device that is designed to protect a wearer from inhaling a hazardous atmosphere, and includes an atmosphere-supplying respirator, an air-purifying respirator and an escape respirator;

(aaa) "safeguard" means a guard, shield, wire mesh, guardrail, gate, barrier, safety net, handrail or other similar equipment that is designed to protect the safety of workers, but does not include personal protective equipment;

(bbb) "safety belt" Repealed. [Sask. Reg. 67/2007, s. 3]

(ccc) "SCBA" means self-contained breathing apparatus;

(ddd) "supervisor" means a person who is authorized by an employer to oversee or direct the work of workers;

(eee) "train" means to give information and explanation to a worker with respect to a particular subject-matter and require a practical demonstration that the worker has acquired knowledge or skill related to the subject-matter;

(fff) "travelway" means any place where workers or vehicles regularly travel or pass, and includes a ramp, runway, catwalk, bridge, conveyor, gantry or passage;

(ggg) "trench" means an elongated dug-out area of land whose depth exceeds its width at the bottom;

(hhh) "tunnel" means an underground passage that has an incline of not more than 45 from the horizontal;

(iii) "vehicle" means a machine in, on or by which a person or thing may be transported, and includes powered mobile equipment;

(jjj) "work" and "at work" means:

(i) the time during which a worker is in the course of the worker's employment; or

(ii) the time that a self-employed person devotes to work as a self-employed person;

(kkk) "work-related area" means all places that are ancillary to a place of employment, and includes lunchrooms, restrooms, first aid rooms, lecture rooms, parking lots under the control of the employer or contractor, offices and work camp living accommodations, but does not include a permanent living accommodation.

(2) For the purposes of the Act and in these regulations and all other regulations made pursuant to the Act, "injury" includes any disease and any impairment of the physical or mental condition of a person.

(3) Any word or expression used but not defined in these regulations or the Act has the meaning commonly given to it at places of employment in the industry concerned.

(4) Unless otherwise expressly stated:

(a) lumber sizes specified in these regulations are lumber sizes after dressing; and

(b) "lumber" means lumber that is free of visible defects.

[Sask. Reg. 6/97, s. 3; 35/2003, s. 3; 112/2005, s. 3; 67/2007, s. 3]

3. Repealed. [Sask. Reg. 35/2003, s. 4]

Part IX Safeguards, Storage, Warning Signs and Signals

Section 132 Designated signallers

132. (1) Where the giving of signals by a designated signaller is required by these regulations, an employer or contractor shall:

(a) designate a worker to be the designated signaller;

(b) ensure that the designated signaller is sufficiently trained to carry out the signaller's duties in a manner that will ensure the signaller's safety and the safety of other workers; and

(c) keep a record of the training required by clause (b) and give a copy of the record to the designated signaller.

(2) An employer or contractor shall:

(a) provide each designated signaller with, and require the signaller to use, a high visibility vest, armlets or other high visibility clothing, whether the signaller is on a public highway or is at any other place of employment; and

(b) provide each designated signaller with a suitable light to signal with during hours of darkness and in conditions of poor visibility.

(3) An employer or contractor shall:

(a) install suitably placed signs to warn traffic of the presence of a designated signaller before the signaller begins work; and

(b) where reasonably practicable, install suitable overhead lights to illuminate a designated signaller effectively.

(4) A designated signaller shall ensure that it is safe to proceed with a movement before signalling for that movement to proceed.

(5) Where the giving of signals by a designated signaller is required by these regulations, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) no worker other than the designated signaller gives signals to an operator except in an emergency; and

(b) only one designated signaller gives signals to an operator at a time.

(6) Where hand signals cannot be transmitted properly between a designated signaller and an operator, an employer or contractor shall ensure that additional designated signallers are available to effect proper transmission of signals or that some other means of communication is provided.

(7) Where two or more designated signallers are used, an employer or contractor shall ensure that the designated signallers are able to communicate effectively with each other.

Part III General Duties

Section 14 Employment of young persons

14. (1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that no person under the age of 16 years is employed or permitted to work:

(a) on a construction site;

(b) in a production process at a pulp mill, sawmill or woodworking establishment;

(c) in a production process at a smelter, foundry, refinery or metal processing or fabricating operation;

(d) in a confined space;

(e) in a production process in a meat, fish or poultry processing plant;

(f) in a forestry or logging operation;

(g) on a drilling or servicing rig;

(h) as an operator of powered mobile equipment, a crane or a hoist;

(i) where exposure to a chemical or biological substance is likely to endanger the health or safety of the person; or

(j) in power line construction or maintenance.

(2) An employer or contractor shall ensure that no person under the age of 18 years is employed:

(a) underground or in an open pit at a mine;

(b) as a radiation worker;

(c) in an asbestos process as defined in section 330;

(d) in a silica process as defined in section 346; or

(e) in any activity for which these regulations or any other regulations made pursuant to the Act require the use of an atmosphere-supplying respirator.

Part XII Scaffolds, Aerial Devices, Elevating Work Platforms and Temporary Supporting Structures

Section 192 Aerial devices and elevating work platforms

192. (1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) an aerial device, elevating work platform or personnel lifting unit is designed, constructed, erected, operated and maintained in accordance with an approved standard; or

(b) a professional engineer has certified that:

(i) an aerial device, elevating work platform or personnel lifting unit and its elevating system and mountings are safe for the purpose of raising workers and loads; and

(ii) the components of an aerial device, elevating work platform or personnel lifting unit and its elevating system and mountings are designed in accordance with an approved standard.

(2) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit a worker to be raised or lowered by any aerial device or elevating work platform or to work from a device or platform held in an elevated position unless:

(a) there is an adequate and suitable means of communication between the worker operating the controls and the worker raised on the platform, if they are not the same person;

(b) the elevating mechanism is designed so that, if any failure of the mechanism occurs, the platform will descend in a controlled manner so that no worker on the platform will be endangered;

(c) the controls are designed so that the platform will be moved only when direct pressure is applied to the controls;

(d) the drive mechanism of any operation for moving the platform is positive and does not rely on gravity;

(e) road traffic conditions, environmental conditions, overhead wires, cables and other obstructions do not create a danger to the worker;

(f) the brakes of the aerial device or elevating work platform are engaged, except when operated in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations;

(g) if the aerial device or elevating work platform is equipped with outriggers, the outriggers are set;

(h) pursuant to clause (i), the worker is provided with and is required to use a personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of Part VII; and

(i) the aerial device or elevating work platform is equipped with a lanyard attachment point that is:

(i) designed and constructed to an approved standard; or

(ii) certified as safe by a professional engineer and installed and used in accordance with that design.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision in this section but subject to section 465, an employer or contractor shall not require or permit a worker working on an exposed energized high voltage electrical conductor to work from an aerial device or elevating work platform unless the controls are operated by the worker on the device or platform.

(4) Where a worker leaves an aerial device or elevating work platform parked or unattended, an employer or contractor shall ensure that the device or platform:

(a) is locked or rendered inoperative; or

(b) is fully lowered and retracted with all hydraulic systems in the neutral position or incapable of operating by moving the controls.

(5) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) a worker who operates an aerial device or elevating work platform is trained to operate the device or platform safely; and

(b) the training includes the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations, the load limitations, the proper use of all controls and any limitations on the surfaces on which the device or platform is designed to be used.

(5.1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that, while a worker is on a work platform mounted on a forklift and the forklift is in the raised position, the operator:

(a) remains at the controls; and

(b) does not drive the forklift.

(6) An employer or contractor shall ensure that the manufacturer's operating manual for the aerial device or elevating work platform is kept with the device or platform at all times.

[Sask. Reg. 67/2007, s. 20]

Part XIII Hoists, Cranes and Lifting Devices

Section 199 Interpretation

199. In this Part:

(a) "anti two block warning device" means a device that warns the worker that continued upward movement of the load line may cause the load block to strike the upper sheaves;

(b) "boom" means a member that is attached to a crane superstructure and used to support the upper end of the hoisting tackle;

(c) "crane" means equipment that is designed to lift, lower and move loads horizontally and that consists of a rotating superstructure, operating machinery and a boom;

(d) "designated operator" means a worker designated pursuant to clause 204(2)(a) to operate a hoist, crane or lifting device;

(e) "jib" means an extension to a boom that is attached to the boom tip to provide additional boom length;

(f) "lifting device" means a device that is used to raise or lower material or an object, but does not include a crane or hoist;

(g) "load rating" means the maximum loads that may be lifted or lowered safely at a series of stated configurations under a series of stated conditions;

(h) "material hoist" means a hoist that is designed to raise and lower equipment or material and that has a load-carrying unit that moves within fixed guides, but does not include a hoist that is designed to raise or lower workers;

(i) "mobile crane" means a crane mounted on a truck, wheel or crawler base that can move freely under the crane's own power without being restricted to a predetermined path;

(j) "rated load" means the maximum load that may be lifted or lowered safely using a particular configuration under the conditions existing at the time of the lifting or lowering operation;

(k) "tower crane" means a crane that is mounted on a tower and that can rotate about the axis of the tower;

(l) "tower hoist" means a hoist with a tower that forms an integral part of the supporting structure and a load-carrying unit that travels between fixed guides.

[Sask. Reg. 6/97, s. 9]

Section 201 General requirements

201. (1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that every hoist, crane and lifting device, including all rigging, used at a place of employment is designed, constructed, installed, maintained and operated to perform safely any task for which the hoist, crane, lifting device or rigging is used.

(2) A supplier shall ensure that every hoist, crane and lifting device, including all rigging, supplied for use at a place of employment is designed, constructed, installed, maintained and operated to perform safely any task for which the hoist, crane, lifting device or rigging is intended to be used.

Section 202 Adoption of standards

202. (1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that all hoists, cranes and lifting devices manufactured on and after the day on which these regulations come into force are constructed, inspected, tested, maintained and operated in accordance with an approved standard.

(2) A supplier shall ensure that all hoists, cranes and lifting devices manufactured on and after the day on which these regulations come into force are constructed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with an approved standard.

Section 203 Load ratings

203. (1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a hoist, crane or lifting device is provided with a durable and clearly legible indication of the load rating that is readily accessible to the operator at the control station.

(2) A supplier shall ensure that the indication of the load rating of a hoist, crane or lifting device contains:

(a) all appropriate load ratings for the hoist, crane or lifting device;

(b) any applicable warning that no allowance is made in the load ratings for such factors as the effects of swinging loads, tackle weight, wind, degree of machine level, ground conditions, inflation of tires and operating speeds; and

(c) any applicable restrictions to operating in low temperatures.

Section 204 Designated operator

204. (1) In this section:

(a) "competent operator" means a worker who has successfully completed a training program that includes all of the elements set out in Table 16 of the Appendix for the crane that the worker will be required or permitted to operate or is completing the practical training required by Part II of Table 16 under the direct supervision of a competent operator or a qualified operator;

(b) "qualified operator" means:

(i) the holder of a journeyman's certificate in the crane and hoist operator trade issued pursuant to The Apprenticeship and Trade Certification Act;

(ii) the holder of a proficiency certificate in a subtrade of the crane and hoist operator trade issued pursuant to The Apprenticeship and Trade Certification Act;

(iii) an apprentice in the crane and hoist operator trade who is working under the direction of a person described in subclause (i) or (ii); or

(iv) any other worker who:

(A) has received training, and has experience, in the safe operation of a crane that, in the opinion of the director, is equivalent to or superior to the training and experience of a person mentioned in subclause (i), (ii) or (iii); or

(B) is a member of a category of workers whose training and experience in the safe operation of a crane, in the opinion of the director, is equivalent to or superior to the training and experience of a person mentioned in subclause (i), (ii) or (iii).

(2) Subject to subsections (3), (4) and (5), an employer or contractor shall:

(a) designate a worker to operate a hoist, crane or lifting device;

(b) ensure that the designated operator is trained in the operation of that hoist, crane or lifting device; and

(c) ensure that no worker operates a hoist, crane or lifting device other than a designated operator.

(3) Subject to subsection (4), on and after July 1, 1997, an employer or contractor shall ensure that the designated operator is a qualified operator where the crane to be operated is:

(a) a tower crane;

(b) an overhead travelling crane that has a load rating equal to or greater than 50 tonnes;

(c) a crane that is used to raise or lower a worker on a personnel-lifting unit suspended from a hoist line; or

(d) a mobile crane that has a load rating greater than five tonnes.

(4) Subsection (3) does not apply to a crane that is:

(a) mounted on a vehicle and used exclusively to load or unload that vehicle; or

(b) owned by an employer, operated by a worker in the service of that employer and used solely at that employer's place of employment to perform work exclusively for that employer.

(5) On and after July 1, 1997, in any circumstances other than those described in subsection (3), an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) for any crane with a load rating greater than or equal to five tonnes, the designated operator is a competent operator; and

(b) for any mobile or overhead travelling crane with a load rating less than five tonnes, the designated operator is a competent worker.

(6) No worker shall operate a hoist, crane or lifting device unless the worker is a designated operator and has been trained in the operation of that hoist, crane or lifting device.

(7) No worker shall operate a crane unless the worker:

(a) has written proof of training in the operation of any crane that the worker will be required or permitted to operate; and

(b) has that written proof of training readily accessible at all times while the worker is operating the crane.

[Sask. Reg. 6/97, s. 10]

Section 205 Operating procedures

205. (1) Subject to subsection (2), an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) a copy of the manufacturer's operating manual for a hoist or crane is readily accessible to the operator; and

(b) an operator of a hoist or crane is thoroughly trained in and implements the manufacturer's recommended operating procedures.

(2) Where the manufacturer's manual for a hoist or crane cannot be obtained, an employer or contractor shall develop an operating manual for the hoist or crane and ensure that:

(a) a copy of the operating manual is readily accessible to the operator; and

(b) an operator of the hoist or crane is thoroughly trained in and implements the operating procedures set out in the operating manual.

Section 206 Rated load

206. (1) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit the operator of a hoist, crane or lifting device to raise any load that is greater than the rated load determined by the manufacturer of the equipment or a professional engineer for the conditions in which the equipment is to be operated.

(2) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit the operator of a hoist, crane or lifting device to use the hoist, crane or lifting device to raise or lower workers unless the load applied to the hoist, crane or lifting device is less than one-half of the rated load as determined pursuant to subsection (1).

(3) An operator of a hoist, crane or lifting device shall not raise a load unless:

(a) the operator has determined the accurate weight of the load; and

(b) the load is less than the rated load for the operating conditions.

Section 207 Raising and lowering workers

207. (1) Where a crane or hoist will be used to raise or lower workers, the employer or contractor shall:

(a) develop and implement work practices and procedures that will provide for the safe raising and lowering of the workers;

(b) train the workers in those work practices and procedures;

(c) ensure that the hoisting equipment and personnel lifting unit are inspected by a competent person before use and daily when in use; and

(d) ensure that the competent person records the details of the inspection in the log book.

(2) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit the operator of a crane or hoist to use the crane or hoist to raise or lower workers unless:

(a) the personnel lifting unit meets the requirements of subsection 192(1);

(b) the suspension members of the personnel lifting unit are securely attached to the crane, hoist line or hook by a shackle, weldless link, ring or other secure rigging attachment;

(c) there is a secondary safety device that attaches the suspension members of the personnel lifting unit to the crane or hoist rigging above the point of attachment mentioned in clause (b);

(d) the load line hoist drum has a system or device on the power train, other than the load hoist brake, that regulates the lowering rate of speed of the hoist drum mechanism; and

(e) workers in the personnel lifting unit use a full-body harness attached to the personnel lifting unit.

(3) An operator of a crane or hoist shall not use the crane or hoist to raise or lower workers unless:

(a) the personnel lifting unit meets the requirements of section 192;

(b) the suspension members of the personnel lifting unit are securely attached to the crane, hoist line or hook by a shackle, weldless link, ring or other secure rigging attachment;

(c) there is a secondary safety device that attaches the suspension members of the personnel lifting unit to the crane or hoist rigging above the point of attachment mentioned in clause (b);

(d) the load line hoist drum has a system or device on the power train, other than the load hoist brake, that regulates the lowering rate of speed of the hoist drum mechanism; and

(e) workers in the personnel lifting unit use fall-arrest protection attached to the personnel lifting unit.

[Sask. Reg. 67/2007, s. 22]

Section 208 Determining weight of load

208. (1) An employer or contractor shall provide the operator of a hoist, crane or lifting device with all the information necessary to enable the operator to determine readily and accurately the weight of any load that the operator is required or permitted to raise.

(2) An employer or contractor shall provide a permanent load gauge for a mobile crane that may be used for load ratings of nine tonnes or greater at the minimum operating radius.

(3) A permanent load gauge required by subsection (2) must measure the weight of any load being hoisted and instantaneously indicate that weight to the operator.

(4) Subsection (2) does not apply to cranes that:

(a) use a device suspended by a wire rope to demolish a structure;

(b) use a magnet to raise or lower a load; or

(c) use a clam-style load carrier to move material.

(5) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit a worker to use a crane mentioned in subsection (2) unless the crane is equipped with a permanent load gauge that will measure the weight of any load being hoisted and instantaneously indicate that weight to the operator.

(6) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) a worker who is required or permitted to use a crane equipped with a permanent load gauge is trained in the safe use and limitations of the permanent load gauge; and

(b) the permanent load gauge is regularly inspected, maintained and calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Section 210 Designated signaller

210. (1) An employer or contractor shall designate a signaller pursuant to section 132 where the operator of a hoist or crane does not have a clear, unobstructed view of any of the following throughout the whole range of movement of the load or hook:

(a) the pick-up point;

(b) the setting point and the load;

(c) the hook, if there is no load.

(2) Before a hoisting operation begins, an employer or contractor shall ensure that the operator of the hoist or crane reviews with the designated signaller the signals to be used.

(3) Where a hand signal is to be used in connection with a hoist or crane, an employer or contractor shall ensure that the signal used is the signal that is appropriate for the activity to be carried out and that is set out in an approved standard.

(4) An operator of a hoist or crane and a designated signaller shall use the signal set out in the standard mentioned in subsection (3) that is appropriate for the activity to be carried out.

Section 211 General requirements for cranes and hoists

211. (1) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that a crane is equipped with an effective warning device that can be readily activated by the operator and that is adequate to warn workers of the impending movement of the crane.

(2) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that a crane that has a boom is equipped with:

(a) positive boom stops to prevent inadvertent movement of the boom;

(b) a boom stop limit device to prevent the boom from being drawn back beyond a predetermined safe boom angle identified by the manufacturer;

(c) a jib stop device to prevent the jib from being drawn back beyond the safe boom angle identified by the manufacturer, where a jib is attached to the boom; and

(d) a boom angle indicator that is clearly visible to the operator while seated at the control station.

(3) On and after January 1, 1998, an employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that a crane is equipped with an anti two block warning device where the crane will be used to hoist workers on a personnel lifting unit or where the crane is a hydraulic crane with a rated load of nine tonnes or greater.

(4) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that a hoist or crane that operates on rails, tracks or other guides is fitted with:

(a) a positive stop or limiting device installed on the hoist or crane or on the rails, tracks or other guides to prevent the hoist or crane from over-running safe limits or contacting other equipment that is on the same rail, track or other guide;

(b) sweepguards installed to prevent materials on the rail, track or other guide from causing dislodgment of the hoist or crane; and

(c) stops to prevent the crane or hoist from dropping more than 2.5 centimetres if the axle breaks.

(5) Where a worker leaves a crane or hoist unattended or parked, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) the crane or hoist is stored in a manner that does not create a risk to any worker;

(b) the operating machinery is locked or rendered inoperative;

(c) the rigging and boom angle are secured; and

(d) a mobile crane is stored on level ground with the wheels locked or chocked.

Section 212 Hoists, cranes with outriggers, etc.

212. Where a hoist or crane is designed to be operated with outriggers or other stabilizing devices, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) the outriggers or other stabilizing devices:

(i) are used according to the manufacturer's instructions;

(ii) are set on a solid footing or pad; and

(iii) have their controls, if any, readily accessible to the operator and in a suitable position for safe operation;

(b) the area around the outriggers or other stabilizing devices is kept free of obstruction;

(c) there is a minimum clearance of at least 600 millimetres between any moving part of the crane and any obstacle near the base of the hoist or crane; and

(d) where there is a danger of a worker being trapped or crushed by any moving part of the crane when the crane swings, the area around the base of the crane is barricaded to restrict the entry of workers.

Section 213 Operators' cabs on tower cranes

213. Where an operator's cab is to be attached to the boom or jib of a tower crane, an employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that the cab is designed, positioned and attached in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer of the crane or a professional engineer.

Section 214 Erecting and dismantling

214. (1) Subject to subsection (4), an employer or contractor shall develop a written procedure for safely erecting and dismantling a hoist or crane.

(2) The written procedure required by subsection (1) must include the safe blocking of any mast, boom or jib and the number and qualifications of workers required to implement the procedure.

(3) An employer or contractor shall ensure that the erecting and dismantling of a hoist or crane is carried out in accordance with the written procedure required by subsection (1).

(4) An employer or contractor may use the manufacturer's instructions for erecting or dismantling a hoist or crane if the instructions contain the requirements set out in subsection (2).

Section 215 Log book

215. (1) An employer or contractor shall:

(a) provide a log book for each hoist and crane with a rated load greater than five tonnes and ensure that the log book is kept readily available;

(b) provide a copy of the log book to the operator on request;

(c) ensure that the hours of service of the hoist or crane and all details of any inspection, maintenance or calibration required by this Part are recorded in the log book;

(d) ensure that each entry required by clause (c) is signed by the person who performs the inspection, maintenance or calibration; and

(e) review and sign the log book on a regular basis.

(2) Where the supplier of a hoist or crane provides a log book, an employer or contractor shall ensure that the information and signatures required by subsection (1) are recorded in the supplier's log book instead of the employer's or contractor's log book and that the supplier's log book is kept with the hoist or crane.

Section 216 Inspections

216. (1) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that a hoist, crane or lifting device is inspected by a competent person to determine whether the hoist, crane or lifting device is in safe working condition:

(a) before the hoist, crane or lifting device is used at the start of each work shift; and

(b) at regular intervals as recommended by the manufacturer.

(2) Where a defect or unsafe condition that may create a hazard to a worker is found in a hoist, crane, lifting device or rigging, an employer, contractor or supplier shall:

(a) take steps immediately to protect the health and safety of any worker who may be at risk until the defect is repaired or the unsafe condition is corrected; and

(b) as soon as is reasonably practicable, repair any defect or correct any unsafe condition.

(3) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that a mobile crane is subjected to a thorough inspection, including non-destructive testing, under the supervision of a professional engineer every two years or 1,800 hours of operation, whichever comes first.

(4) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that a tower crane is subjected to a thorough inspection, including non-destructive testing, under the supervision of a professional engineer:

(a) before erection at each site; and

(b) at subsequent intervals of 2,000 operating hours or one year, whichever occurs first.

(5) No worker shall operate a crane or cause a crane to be operated unless a copy of the results of the testing or inspection required by subsection (3) or (4) is readily available or is on site.

Section 218 Friction type hoists

218. On a construction site, an employer or contractor shall ensure that no material is hoisted vertically by a rope driven by friction between the rope and a powered surge wheel or drum unless the hoist is equipped with:

(a) a safety device that will prevent a free fall of the load; and

(b) an emergency stop device.

Section 219 Material hoists

219. (1) Where a material hoist is in use, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) no worker is required or permitted to ride on the hoist; and

(b) no load projects beyond the edges of the load-carrying unit.

(2) If the controls of a material hoist are not remote from the hoist, an employer or contractor shall ensure that an adequate overhead barrier is provided to protect the operator.

(3) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) the braking systems on a material hoist are capable of stopping 150% of the rated load mentioned in subsection 206(1) at the maximum speed;

(b) the area around the base of a material hoist is fenced or otherwise barricaded to prevent the entry of workers, and that no worker is required or permitted to enter that area except when the load-carrying unit is at the lowest level; and

(c) a landing gate is installed:

(i) on any landing served by the material hoist; and

(ii) not less than 600 nor more than 900 millimetres from the edge of the landing.

(4) An operator of a material hoist shall not:

(a) leave the controls while the load-carrying unit is in the raised position;

(b) operate the hoist while a landing gate is open; or

(c) move a load-carrying unit until the operator is informed by signal that the load-carrying unit can be moved safely.

(5) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) the operator of a material hoist and a designated signaller at a landing where loading or unloading is carried on are able to maintain visual or audible communication with each other at all times during loading or unloading; and

(b) a material hoist that is, or is designed to be, over 20 metres high is equipped with a signal system that will:

(i) allow voice communication between a worker at any landing and the operator; and

(ii) inform the operator of the landing from which a signal originates.

(6) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a power driven material hoist is equipped with a safety device that will stop and hold the load-carrying unit if the hoist rope or braking system fails.

Section 220 Tower hoists

220. (1) Where a tower hoist is used, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) the pulley block is securely anchored and the ropes from the pulley to the hoisting engine are enclosed; and

(b) at each landing, the hoist is equipped with landing gates and devices that will prevent:

(i) movement of the load-carrying unit when a landing gate is open; and

(ii) opening of a landing gate when the load-carrying unit is not standing at that landing.

(2) Where a tower hoist is not erected inside a structure, an employer or contractor shall ensure that the hoist:

(a) is enclosed on all sides except the landing side by solid walls or equally effective fencing from ground level to a height of not less than two metres; and

(b) is adequately braced or guyed to prevent sway or movement.

(3) Where a tower hoist is erected inside a structure, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) the hoist is enclosed on all sides except the landing side at the ground level and at each floor level by solid walls or equally effective fencing from ground or floor level to a height of not less than two metres;

(b) each point of access to the hoist is conspicuously marked by a warning sign; and

(c) the hoist structure is adequately supported at vertical intervals not exceeding six metres.

Section 221 Roofers' hoists

221. (1) Where a roofer's hoist is used, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) all counterweights on the hoist:

(i) are designed as an integral part of the hoist;

(ii) remain securely attached to the hoist at all times that hoisting is in progress; and

(iii) are designed to exert an opposing moment that is equal to at least four times the moment exerted by the maximum rated load; and

(b) any part or section of the hoist that may become disconnected is equipped with suitable locking devices.

(2) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit a worker to use roofing material as a counterweight on a roofer's hoist.

(3) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a roofer's hoist is used only to perform vertical lifts.

(4) An employer or contractor shall ensure that no worker is required or permitted to use a wooden gallows frame roofer's hoist.

Section 222 Vehicle hoists

222. (1) In this section, "lock" means to fix the controls of a hoist in one position by any mechanical means.

(2) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a pneumatic or hydraulic vehicle hoist is equipped with clearly marked controls that raise or lower the hoist only when a worker is applying pressure to the controls.

(3) An employer or contractor shall ensure that no worker is required or permitted:

(a) during raising or lowering of the hoist, to lock the controls mentioned in subsection (2); or

(b) to work or be under a raised vehicle or trailer unless the vehicle or trailer is supported by:

(i) a vehicle hoist that is designed to safely support the weight of the vehicle or trailer; or

(ii) substantial stands or blocks and, where necessary, wheel chocks.

(4) For the purposes of subclause (3)(b)(ii), jacks alone are not sufficient.

(5) An employer or contractor shall ensure that all pneumatic or hydraulic vehicle hoists are assembled, installed, operated and maintained according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Section 223 Hand-operated hoists

223. (1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that a hand-operated hoist purchased on or after January 1, 1997 is designed, constructed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with an approved standard.

(2) An employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that a hand- operated hoist is equipped with a spring actuated or weighted ratchet and pawl, load brake or other mechanism that will stop and hold the load at any height desired by the operator.

(3) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit a worker to work under a load raised by a hand-operated hoist unless the load is supported with adequate stands or blocks.

Section 224 Winches

224. (1) An employer or contractor shall inspect all manually-operated hoisting or winching equipment thoroughly at appropriate intervals to ensure that the manually-operated hoisting or winching equipment is capable of safe operation.

(2) Before a worker operates a winch on a vehicle, the worker shall ensure that the brakes are applied or other effective means are taken to prevent movement of the vehicle.

(3) A worker who operates a vehicle on which a winch is in use shall not move the vehicle until the winch operator has given a signal that the vehicle can be moved safely.

(4) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit a worker to cross over or under a winch cable between a winch and the load or to go underneath the load while a winch is in use.

Section 225 A-frames and gin poles

225. An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) no A-frame or gin pole is inclined more than 45 from the vertical;

(b) an A-frame or gin pole is restrained from uncontrolled lateral and vertical movement; and

(c) the sheave and the cable keeper of an A-frame or gin pole are attached securely enough to withstand any load to which the assembly may be subjected.

Section 226 Pile-driving equipment

226. (1) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) pile-driving equipment is operated, inspected and maintained according to the manufacturer's instructions; and

(b) any structural repairs or modifications to pile-driving equipment are made under the direction of a professional engineer and certified as safe by the professional engineer before the pile-driving equipment is put in service.

(2) Where pile-driving equipment is used, an employer or contractor shall ensure that a brake band or clutch that is contaminated by oil or grease is dismantled and cleaned or replaced before further use.

(3) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) before a pile is placed in position for driving, the pile head is cut square and, in the case of a timber pile, cleaned free of debris, bark and splintered wood; and

(b) workers are adequately protected from injury that may be caused by the failure of a pile being driven.

(4) An employer or contractor shall not require or permit a worker who works with pile-driving equipment:

(a) to remain or ride on a load being moved;

(b) to work, stand or pass under a suspended load; or

(c) to be on the superstructure of the equipment or within range of a falling pile unless the worker is directly involved in the operation of hoisting piles.

(5) Where a worker uses pile-driving equipment, an employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) a pile hammer is securely chocked while the hammer is suspended and the equipment is not operating; and

(b) no pile is hoisted in the leads while a worker who is not directly involved in the operation is on the superstructure of the equipment or within range of a falling pile.

(6) Where pile-driving equipment is fitted with pressure hammers, an employer, contractor or supplier shall ensure that the hoses are equipped with safety chains or safety ropes on the pressure side of the hose connections.

(7) An employer or contractor shall ensure that:

(a) crane booms used with vibratory hammers or vibratory pile extractors are inspected monthly by a competent person for structural defects; and

(b) any structural defects found pursuant to clause (a) are repaired under the direction of a professional engineer and certified as safe by the professional engineer before the booms are put back into service.

(8) An operator of pile-driving equipment shall ensure that:

(a) the pile hammer is securely chocked while the hammer is suspended and the equipment is not operating; and

(b) no pile is hoisted in the leads while a worker who is not directly involved in the operation is on the superstructure of the equipment or within range of a falling pile.